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Title: Study of the synergistic impact of Fe3O4, Na2CO3 and organic C on kaolin-based lightweight aggregates by a DOE (Mixture Experiments) approach
Authors: Moreno-Maroto, José M.
Cobo-Ceacero, Carlos J.
Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana M.
Conde-Sánchez, Antonio
González-Corrochano, Beatriz
Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto
Uceda-Rodríguez, Manuel
López, Ana B.
Martínez-García, Carmen
Cotes-Palomino, Teresa
Abstract: The compositional synergies involved in the thermal formation of lightweight aggregates (LWAs) have been investigated through four pure phases: non-expansive kaolin (K); cork powder (C); sodium carbonate (N) and magnetite-Fe3O4 (M). Mixture Experiments has been applied for formulation, modeling and optimization. LWAs have been manufactured from 36 starting mixtures and the main technological properties have been characterized: bloating index (BI), particle density (ρrd), water absorption (WA24) and crushing strength (S). Maximum BI and WA24 together with minimum density are associated with the addition of a significant amount of iron phase in combination with small proportions of organic carbon (Optimal [BI > 60%]: 56.0% K + 40.2% M + 3.9% C + 0% N), while S increases antagonistically with expansion. Iron reduction by incomplete combustion of C appears to be critical in pore formation and concomitant bloating. N has enhanced the sphericity of the expanded specimens. The contrast between experimental and estimated data has shown that the models have generally performed very well.
Keywords: Lightweight aggregate
Organic carbon
Mixture Experiments
Issue Date: 3-Nov-2023
metadata.dc.description.sponsorship: This research was conducted as a part of the ECO-MET-AL Project, PID2019-109520RB-I00 / AEI / 10.13039/501100011033, “Can industrial and mining metalliferous wastes produce green lightweight aggregates? Applying the Circular Economy” funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities and ERDF funds, framed in the “Ayudas a Proyectos I + D + i en el marco de los Programas Estatales de Generación de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Científico y Tecnológico del Sistema de I + D + i y de I + D + i orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad, Convocatoria 2019”.
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: José Manuel Moreno-Maroto, Carlos Javier Cobo-Ceacero, Ana M. Martínez-Rodríguez, Antonio Conde-Sánchez, Beatriz González-Corrochano, Jacinto Alonso-Azcárate, Manuel Uceda-Rodríguez, Ana B. López, Carmen Martínez-García, Teresa Cotes-Palomino, Study of the synergistic impact of Fe3O4, Na2CO3 and organic C on kaolin-based lightweight aggregates by a DOE (Mixture Experiments) approach, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 403, 2023, 133152,
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