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|First assessment of the comparative toxicity of ivermectin and moxidectin in adult dung beetles: Sub-lethal symptoms and pre-lethal consequences
Lumaret, Jean Pierre
|Among macrocyclic lactones (ML), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) potentially affect all Ecdysozoan species, with dung beetles being particularly sensitive. The comparative effects of IVM and MOX on adult dung beetles were assessed for the first time to determine both the physiological sub-lethal symptoms and pre-lethal consequences. Inhibition of antennal response and ataxia were tested as two intuitive and ecologically relevant parameters by obtaining the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values and interpolating other relevant toxicity thresholds derived from concentration-response curves (IC50, as the concentration of each ML where the antennal response is inhibited by half; and pLC50, as the quantity of ingested ML where partial paralysis was observed by half of treated individuals) from concentration-response curves. Both sub-lethal and pre-lethal symptoms obtained in this study coincided in that IVM was six times more toxic than MOX for adult dung beetles. Values of LOEC, IC50 and pLC50 obtained for IVM and MOX evaluated in an environmental context indicate that MOX, despite needing more time for its elimination in the faeces, would be half as harmful to dung beetles as IVM. This approach will be valuable to clarify the real impact of MLs on dung beetle health and to avoid the subsequent environmental consequences.
|Project CGL2015-68207-R of the Secretaría de Estado de Investigación–Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.
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